عنوان مقاله [English]
Philosophy of science is the study of methods, assumptions and implications of science, while in this expression, the word “science” has attributed to physics, chemistry, biology, etc generally. Such attribution arises from a positivist point of view, in which traditional sciences such as alchemy has been ignored. Avoiding this presentism, the aim of present study is to investigate the foundations of alchemy of Hassan ibn Zāhed Kermāni, Persian alchemist of 8th/14th century. In spite of containing reasonable and coherent alchemical thought, his three alchemical compilations have been remained unknown yet. Identification of alchemy as the mesocosm (middle universe) is principal in his thought and specifically, appliance of this nomenclature formed his alchemy`s framework. In this article, first, we`ve presented some evidences from Islamic literature, other than Kermāni`s writings, implying the concept of middle being. Then we conducted a hermeneutic approach in which Kermāni`s text is used to interpret his four reasons for knowing alchemy as the mesocosm. In his opinion, alchemy has throughout homologies with mankind as the microcosm and also with macrocosm of the universe. Finally it is demonstrated that correlations between these tripartite configuration of Kermāni`s alchemical ontology, all are based on properties of four classical elements including earth, water, air and fire. In other word, role-playing of four elements within all these three realms validates the correspondence between them.