هم‌وردایی عام، دیدگاه‌های فریدمن و ارمن

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهشکده مطالعات بنیادین علم و فناوری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

مفهوم هم وردایی عام یکی از مفاهیم مهم در نظریه نسبیت عام است که در فهم چیستی آن مشکلات و ابهامات زیادی بروز کرده است. در این مقاله،ضمن توضیح در مورد چیستی مفهوم هم وردایی عام،دیدگاه اندرسون – فریدمن در مورد مفهوم شیء مطلق بیان می شود. شیء مطلق، در این دیدگاه، متمایز کننده نسبیت عام از نظریه های دیگر است. همچنین دو تعریف از مفهوم هم وردایی عام را، یعنی، هم وردایی عام صوری را وهم وردایی عام جوهری را که ارمن ارئه داده است بیان می کنیم. ارمن با بیان اینکه نسبیت عام نظریه ای است که هم وردایی عام جوهری را متحقق می سازد، آن را از دیگر نظریه های فضا – زمانی متمایز می کند. ما در این مقاله،دو دیدگاه فوق را بررسی می کنیم و تمایز آنها را مشخص می سازیم.

تازه های تحقیق

general covariance, space – time theories, absolute object, Friedman’ viewpoint, Earman’s viewpoint

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

General covariance, Friedman and Earman’s viewpoints

نویسنده [English]

  • saeid masoumi
Assistant Professor, Research Institute for Basic Sciences and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

The concept of general covariance is one of the most important concepts in general theory of relativity, which there are a lot of confusing in the understanding of its correct meaning. In this paper I explain and try to elucidate this concept and I will discuss Anderson- Friedman’s absolute object, regarded as what distinguishes between general relativity and other space – time theories. I also consider Earman’s two definitions of general covariance; formal general covariance and substantive general covariance which by introducing these two definition he gives the distinguishing characteristic of general relativity which is its realization of substantive general covariance. Eventually I compare those two viewpoints and discern their distinction

Anderson, J. L. (1967). Principles of Relativity Physics. New York: Academic Press. Anderson and Gaumeau R 1969 Phys. Rev. 185 165.5461

Earman, J. (2006). The implications of general covariance for the ontology and ideology ofspacetime. See Dieks (2006), pp. 3–24.

Earman, J. and J. D. Norton (1987). What price spacetime substantivalism? thehole story. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38, 515–525.

Friedman, M. (1973). Relativity principles, absolute objects and symmetry groups.

In Suppes, P., editor, Space, Time, and Geometry, pages 296–320. D. Reidel,

Dordrecht.

Friedman, M .(1983). Foundations of Space-Time Theories: Relativistic Physics and Philosophy of Science. Princeton University Press.

Isham, C. J.(1999). Modern diferential geometry for physicists, World Scientific,Singapore.

Kretschmann, E. (1917). Über den physikalischen Sinn der Relativitätspostulate. Annalen der Physik 53, 575–614.

Maidens, A. (1998). Symmetry groups, absolute objects and action principles in general relativity. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 29, 245.

Malament, D.B. (2012). Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Norton, J. D. (1993). General covariance and the foundations of general relativity: Eight decades ofdispute. Reports on Progress in Physics 56(7), 791–858.

Norton, J. D. (2003). General covariance, gauge theories, and theKretschmann objection, inBrading, K., & Brown, H. (2003). Symmetries and Noether’s theorems. In K. Brading, &E.Castellani (Eds), Symmetries in physics: Philosophical reflections (pp. 89–109). Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Pitts, J. B. (2005). The Relevance of Irrelevance: Absolute Objects and the Jones-Geroch Dust Velocity Counterexample, with a Note on Spinors

Pitts, J. B. (2006). Absolute objects and counterexamples: Jones-Geroch dust, Torretticonstant curvature, tetrad-spinor, and scalar density. Studies in History andPhilosophy of Modern Physics, 37:347. gr-qc/0506102v4.

Pooley, O. (2010). Substantive general covariance: Another decade of dispute. In M. Suárez, M. Dorato, and M. Rédei (Eds.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association, Volume 2, pp. 197–209. Dordrecht: Springer.

Pooley, O. (2007). Absolute Objects, Counterexamples and General Covariance,http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/3284.

Trautman, A. (1965). Foundations and current problems of General Relativity. InDeser, S. and Ford, K. W., editors, Lectures on General Relativity, pages 1–248. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. Brandeis Summer Institutein Theoretical Physics.