ارزیابی گذار کارناپ از رویکرد ساختار نحوی به سمانتیک به منزلة تلاشی برای ترمیم تجربه‌گرایی

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو پژوهشکدة علم، فلسفه، و اخلاق مهندسی

2 استادیار سابق گروه مطالعات علم انجمن حکمت

.

چکیده

در آغاز قرن بیستم، فلسفة تجربه‌گرایانه، در مقام یک مکتب فلسفی تثبیت‌شده، با انتقاداتی مواجه شد، چنان‌که ارائة صورت‌بندی دقیق و عاری از مشکلات معمول برای ترمیم این مکتب ضروری می‌نمود. یکی از گام‌های بلند در راه ارائة شالوده‌ای متقن برای فلسفة تجربه‌گرایانه، پیشنهاد رویکرد مبتنی‌بر ساختار نحوی، در کتاب ساختار نحوی زبان (1934) کارناپ بود. اما این رویکرد از عهدة پاسخ‌گویی به ایرادات وارده برنیامد، چنان‌که کارناپ از آغاز دهة چهل به ارائة رویکردی نو، با عنوان رویکرد معناشناسانه همت گمارد. هرچند هر دو رویکرد ارائه‌شده توسط کارناپ، یعنی رویکردهای ساختار نحوی و معناشناسانه، از نقاط اوج فلسفة معاصر به حساب می‌آیند، کارناپ نهایتاً نمی‌تواند نسخة غیر قابل انتقاد و منسجمی از تجربه‌گرایی ارائه کند. با این حال در پایان مقاله نشان خواهیم داد که نواقص باقی‌مانده (پس از اعمال رویکرد معناشناسانه) باعث نابودی فلسفة تجربه‌گرایی نمی‌شوند

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Carnap’s Transition from Syntactic Structure to Semantics As an Endeavor to Amend Empiricism

نویسندگان [English]

  • Majid Davoody 1
  • Mehdi Nasrin 2
چکیده [English]

At the outset of the 20th century, the received formulation of empiricism, as it was endorsed in logical empiricism, began to sound problematic, in a way that the system seemed to be in need of some revisions and amendments. Carnap endeavored to fix the gaps by his proposals in his Logical Syntax of Language (1934/37). In spite of some lasting merits, the approach was not left totally uncontroversial; therefore in 1940s Carnap went to do some further revisions in his so called semantic period. In this paper, I will show why the failure of Carnap’s program even in the semantic period does not lead to the total destruction of empiricism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carnap
  • logical empiricism
  • semantic approach
  • syntactic approach
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